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By Noonan, Michael

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This matter is taken up in Sec. 3 below. The only vowels deleted in internal sandhi are 1) the stem vowel (as illustrated in (1) above), and the benefactive suffix -τ, which conditions gemination: (2) o-wil-i-a -> owilla 3s-bring-ben-lso 'he brought it for me' These are the only suffixes followed by suffixes beginning with vowels. It should be noted that when there are two adjacent vowels within a word and one of them is the root vowel, no deletion takes place: (3) a-ol-o -> a51o ls-cough-stem+vowel Ί coughed' a-or -» agent-send 'messenger' S f aor \.

G. päkö 'girl' 18 , which irregularly forms associatives by deleting -ko and changing its tone, and cwä 'husband': pa*· +· a·* cwa + a para cwara 'my daughter' 'my husband' A few forms show /r/ in the singular but /g/ in the corresponding plural. For instance, the independent associative pronouns (Sec. , but plural mega, megi, etc. 3 Miscellaneous alternations A few other alternations are attested. 6 'Zero consonants' At various points in this grammar, reference is made to the so-called 'zero consonant' phenomenon, instances of initial consonants which, before their loss, triggered or blocked certain phonological processes, the effects of which persist into the modern language.

Rino* a*>. abwor —* meat att+part lion 'the lion's meat' r< (with coalescence) bötdakö ^ to woman 'to the woman' [böd»äxo] äbwor (with voicing assimilation) Except for the attributive particle, the vowels in these clitics do not condition nor undergo vowel harmony. /, stress is placed on the last syllable: (7) daktal cukul 'doctor' 'school' In compounds and NP's consisting of inalienable associative constructions, the root vowel of the rightmost word receives primary stress, the root vowel of the other words receiving secondary stress (primary stress is underlined once, secondary twice): (8) dogwtpo mouth bird 'bird's mouth' pig abolo juice plaintain 'plaintain juice' rg yag mxirnv meat cow whiteman 'European beef 4.

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A Grammar of Lango by Noonan, Michael


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