By William Dwight Whitney
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This ebook is a grammar of Mangghuer, a Mongolic language spoken by way of nearly 25,000 humans in China's northwestern Qinghai Province. Mangghuer is nearly unknown outdoors China, and no grammar of Mangghuer has ever been released in any language. The book's fundamental significance is hence as a scientific grammatical description of a little-known language.
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Extra info for A Sanskrit Grammar: Including Both the Classical Language, and the Older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana
J/ does not appear in syllable codas. (15) a [t\awDtFn] b [khODt\ε] jiaodun ‘dream’ kejie ‘when’ /zh/ is a voiceless unaspirated retroﬂex affricate [tZ]. It appears in word-initial or word-medial position, as illustrated by (16a) and (16b), respectively. /zh/ does not appear in the coda of a syllable. 5 Fricatives /f/, /s/, /x/, /sh/, /h/ /f/ is a voiceless labio-dental fricative [f ]. It generally occurs in Chinese borrowings, but is also found in some Mongolic roots. /f/ appears word-initially (17a) and wordmedially (17b), but not in syllable codas.
A third variation, which itself has at least two versions, is that the Monguor came from Ganzhou ( ), somewhat north of the current Monguor territory, in Gansu province. The third theory connects the Monguor with the Shato Turks, a group frequently mentioned in historical documents from this area. K. Li (1993:10–11) points out that commentators agree on the presence of some Shato Turks among the Monguor clans, but does not give much elaboration here. We should note, however, that K. Li does mention accounts among the Mangghuer of Minhe which suggest a Turkic connection in their past.
1 /i/ /i/ is a high front vowel. It is generally realized as somewhat central, in the area of [L], but may also move toward the quality [i], especially in stressed syllables. 1 (39) a [DponL] boni b [tL] di PHONEMIC INVENTORY ‘drum’ ‘eat’ When following the alveolar fricative /s/ or the alveolar affricate /z/, /i/ has a high central allophone, in the area of [t]. ], which is slightly rhotacized, due to inheriting a bit of retroﬂexion from its environment. ] mughashi ‘tomorrow’ In all of its environments, except when following a retroﬂex consonant, /i/ may optionally be pronounced with some spirantization.
A Sanskrit Grammar: Including Both the Classical Language, and the Older Dialects, of Veda and Brahmana by William Dwight Whitney