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By Brian J. Cantwell

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16)). Thus 1 ⁄ ( f τ f ) is generally a fraction somewhat less than one. 10 ENGINE NOTATION An important part of analyzing the performance of a propulsion system has to do with being able to determine how each component of the engine contributes to the overall thrust and specific impulse. To accomplish this we will use a standard notation widely used in industry for characterizing the pressure and temperature change across each component. First we need to adopt a standard system for numbering the engine components.

Note that as the aircraft burns fuel it must increase altitude to maintain constant L ⁄ D . and the required thrust decreases. The small, time dependent effects due to the upward acceleration are neglected. 6 PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY It is instructive to decompose the overall efficiency into an aerodynamic factor and a thermal factor. Thus the overall efficiency is written as the product of a propulsive and thermal efficiency. 30) If the exhaust is fully expanded so that P e = P 0 and the fuel mass flow is much less than the air mass flow m˙ f « m˙ a the propulsive efficiency reduces to 2U 0 η pr = --------------------- .

In contrast stagnation pressure losses due to heat addition can be quite large in a supersonic flow. With this background we will now construct a ramjet flow field beginning with supersonic flow through a straight, infinitely thin tube. For definiteness let the free stream Mach number be three and the ambient temperature T 0 = 250°K . Throughout this example we will assume that the friction along the channel wall is negligible. 3 Step 1 - Initially uniform Mach three flow. Add an inlet convergence and divergence.

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Aircraft and Rocket Propulsion by Brian J. Cantwell

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