By Jonathan Steinberg
Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy have been united in a 'brutal friendship'. either had savage racial legislation: either Hitler and Mussolini viciously denounced the 'Jewish menace'. but every one kingdom taken care of the Jews particularly in a different way. when Jews who fell into the palms of the German military have been consigned, nearly with no exception to focus camps, no longer one Jew taken by way of the Italians suffered an analogous destiny. Italian officials safe not only Italian Jews, yet Jewish refugees of each nationality. Jonathan Steinberg makes use of this striking and poignant tale to resolve the explanations and forces underpinning either Nazism and Fascism in an try to get to the bottom of the underlying query: Why?
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Additional resources for All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-43
Colonel Antonio Gandin attended the military parade on 9 May 1939, the birthday of the Empire, and went back to his office deeply depressed: infantry: of four grenadier and infantry regiments only one (81st) has the complete new equipment… motorized infantry: one regiment with automobiles for infantry of the new type, one with vehicles of the old type… artillery: practically all old material…. 3 16 THE EVENTS Italian war preparations amounted to bluff and bluster. Mussolini talked about ‘eight million bayonets’.
On the day that 26 THE EVENTS Map 2 Italian army units in Yugoslavia, 1941 the treaty between Italy and Croatia was signed, he reported that the agreement ‘had a crushing effect throughout Croatia and hatred of the new hegemony has increased to an extreme point…. ’49 Ulrich von Hassell, the former German Ambassador in Rome, knew the Italians. From his retirement he watched them occupy absurd positions and speculated on Hitler’s motives: Border construction in the Balkans nears its end. Their form and the protectorate positions granted to Italy defy belief.
In spite of constant hectoring the Italian forces in North Africa made slow progress on the route to the Suez Canal. Russian troop movements alarmed Hitler and the Battle of Britain began slowly and perceptibly to turn against the Luftwaffe. The German naval attaché in Rome reported to Berlin that the Italian navy showed lack of offensive spirit, and the early engagements against the 18 THE EVENTS Royal Navy had not encouraged it to develop any. On 19 September 1940 the German Foreign Minister, Joachim von Ribbentrop, visited Rome and told Mussolini that Greece and Yugoslavia remained ‘exclusively Italian interests’.
All or Nothing: The Axis and the Holocaust 1941-43 by Jonathan Steinberg