New PDF release: An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

By N. E. Collinge

ISBN-10: 0415020646

ISBN-13: 9780415020640

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its examine and its history
* finished indexes of subject matters and Technical phrases, and Names
* rigorously illustrated to provide an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of data on all elements of language is a needs to for all libraries in better schooling, faculties and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has an outstanding bibliography. additionally, there are accomplished indexes of issues and technical phrases and names. hugely advised for all university and normal public libraries.' - Choice
`This vital e-book is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and methods to, language, with beneficiant references to extra certain assets. each one bankruptcy has an outstanding bibliography.' - Language International
`A accomplished advisor ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is suggested to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful relief ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed a very good task ... there are nearly no components of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's solid signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, instances better schooling complement

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Extra resources for An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

Sample text

5, it is not always signalled by the presence of vocal cord vibration), the same difference is used to distinguish /d/ from /t/, and /g/ from /k/. A very similar difference 20 LANGUAGE AS ORGANISED SOUND distinguishes /v/ from /f/, and /z/ from /s/. Likewise the difference between /m/ and /b/ is the same as that between /n/ and /d/ (‘nasality’), and the difference between /s/ and /t/ is the same as that between /z/ and /d/ (‘continuance’). The net result of this situation is that the phonemes of English fall into classes for which the distinctive features form convenient labels: /p t ʧ k f θ s ʃ h/ are the class of ‘voiceless’ sounds in English, /t d s z θ ð l n ʧ ʤ ʃ ʒ r/ are the ‘coronals’ (sounds made with the tongue tip or blade raised—see Chapter 1, Figure 1), /m n ŋ/ are the ‘nasals’, /i e æ ɒ υ ʌ/ are the ‘short vowels’, and so forth.

For the present, however, this over-simple theory points us in the right direction in beginning to establish the difference between Phonology and Phonetics. There are a number of general works on phonology which can be recommended. Hyman (1975) is a widely-used textbook, and is for the most part genuinely introductory. Lass (1984) is rather more advanced, but will prove stimulating to the reader who has a grasp of the basic concepts in phonology. Fischer-Jørgensen (1975) and Anderson (1985) aim at a detailed treatment of the historical development of the subject, and the philosophical issues it raises.

3 The use of non-phonological information in rules Phonologists have disagreed fundamentally on the question of how far it is legitimate for phonological rules to refer to facts other than those of pronunciation. The traditional linguistic description places phonology first, morphology second, and syntax third. There is some practical justification in doing this, as putting phonology first enables the reader to pronounce the words which are involved in the later sections. Similarly, putting morphology before syntax focuses attention on the words themselves before considering the constructions in which they are involved.

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An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge

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