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There is a generic foundation for building a quantum computer. According to [12], we basically need • (i) any two-level quantum system • (ii) interaction between qubits, and • (iii) external manipulation of qubits. The two-level system is used as a qubit and the interaction between qubits is used to implement the conditional logic of the quantum logical gates. The system of qubits must be accessible from outside, to read in the input state and read out the output, as well as during the computation if the quantum algorithm requires it.

The key ingredient is that result B for particle 2 is independent of the setting a, nor A on b, in other words, we address individual particles locally. Suppose that ρ(λ) is the probability distribution of λ (with dλρ(λ) = 1). 15) then the hidden variable model would lead to P (a, b) = dλ ρ(λ) A(a, λ)B(b, λ). 15). 16) now reads P (a, b) = − dλ ρ(λ) A(a, λ)A(b, λ). 17) Adding one more unit vector c, we have P (a, b) − P (a, c) = = − dλ ρ(λ) [A(a, λ)A(b, λ) − A(a, λ)A(c, λ)] dλ ρ(λ) A(a, λ)A(b, λ)[A(a, λ)A(c, λ) − 1].

3. Long decoherence times are required. The ratio τGate /τDec. of the time required for gates operations must be considerably greater that the typical decoherence time of the system under consideration. • 4. A “universal” set of quantum gates. The system must be able to support one-qubit and two-qubit gates for universal quantum computing [65]. • 5. Readout. The system must have a qubit-specific measurement capability. • 6. The ability to interconvert stationary and flying qubits. • 7. The ability to faithfully transmit flying qubits between specified locations.