By Patrick Richard (Eds.)
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Additional resources for Atomic Physics: Accelerators
Introduction When high-velocity ions penetrate a material, they interact with the target atoms along their trajectories and lose energy to them by several mechanisms. One mechanism transfers energy from the moving ions to the target electrons through excitation and ionization of the target atoms. Another mechanism transfers energy from the ions to the target nuclei through momentum transfer. Energy loss and scattering have been an important source of information on the constitution of atoms. Theoretical and experimental work on this subject have been going on since the beginning of the century.
B. Firsov, Z h . Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 33, 696 [Engl. , Sot,. -JETP (1958)l. 0. B. Firsov, Z h . Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 36, 1517 [Engl. , Sov. --JETf (1959)l. I n J . Lindhard. M . Scharff, and H . E. Schistt, Mur. Fys. Mrdd. D u n . Vid. Selsk. 14 (1963). 5, 1192 6, 534 9, 1076 33, No. 2. 29 GENERAL CONCEPTS O F ENERGY LOSS Relativistic effect Perturbation treatment Bethe (Born approximation) Bloch (impact parameter) Cindhard (dielectric method) I I I I I lo-* I 10-1 1 Proton energy (MeV) effect 1 I I lo2 lo3 lo4 FIG.
McCill Univ. (1973). 38 Studio del progetto di un circlotrone superconduttore per ioni pesanti, Instituto nazionale di fisica nucleare (1976). 37 H . G. Blosser, V l I Internarionul Conference on Cyclotrons, Birkhauser Verlag, p. 584 (1975). 38 R. Wideroe, Arch. Elektrotech. 21, 387 (1928). 2. 7. Global plots of the energy per nucleon (MeV/A) vs. the ion mass ( A ) are given for several accelerators. The curves are labeled according to either their location or their accelerator name: MSU stands for Michigan State University, Ganil is the French project, etc.
Atomic Physics: Accelerators by Patrick Richard (Eds.)