By Weiming Wu
Comprehensive textual content at the basics of modeling move and sediment delivery in rivers treating either actual ideas and numerical tools for numerous levels of complexity. contains 1-D, 2-D (both intensity- and width-averaged) and 3D types, in addition to the combination and coupling of those versions. includes a extensive choice of numerical tools for open-channel flows, reminiscent of the SIMPLE(C) algorithms on staggered and non-staggered grids, the projection approach, and the flow functionality and vorticity technique. The cutting-edge in sediment shipping modeling ways is defined, reminiscent of non-equilibrium delivery types, non-uniform total-load delivery types, and semi-coupled and matched methods for move and sediment calculations. Sediment shipping idea is mentioned and lots of newly-developed, non-uniform sediment shipping formulae are provided. the numerous labored examples illustrate a variety of stipulations, resembling reservoir sedimentation; channel erosion as a result of dam building; channel widening and meandering; neighborhood scour round in-stream hydraulic buildings; plants results on channel morphodynamic techniques; cohesive sediment shipping; dam-break fluvial methods and contaminant shipping. advised as a reference advisor for river and hydraulic engineers and as a direction textual content for educating sediment delivery modeling, computational free-surface move, and computational river dynamics to senior scholars.
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Finished textual content at the basics of modeling circulate and sediment delivery in rivers treating either actual rules and numerical tools for varied levels of complexity. contains 1-D, 2-D (both intensity- and width-averaged) and 3D versions, in addition to the combination and coupling of those versions.
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Additional info for Computational river dynamics
4 Sketch of the water and sediment mixture. 23) and the specific weight of the mixture is correspondingly given by γ = ρg. 24) where uf i is the i-component of water velocity, usi is the i-component of sediment velocity, and i denotes three spatial directions (= 1, 2, 3). 2 GOVERNING EQUATIONS OF WATER AND SEDIMENT TWO-PHASE FLOW Because the stochastically averaged properties of a group of sediment particles are mainly concerned in river engineering, sediment is often assumed to be a kind of continuous medium.
1% by weight of the sample are finer, respectively. 9 . 14) Ak =50 where Ak is the cumulative percentage of sediment finer than size dk . For uniform sediment, M = 1. A smaller value of M corresponds to a more nonuniform sediment mixture. Porosity and dry density A sediment deposit is a porous material and has voids among solid particles. 15) where Vv and Vs are the volumes of voids and solids, respectively. The dry density, ρd , and dry specific weight, γd , of a sediment deposit are the mass and weight of the solids per unit total volume.
The transport equation of k can be derived in exact form from the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. 51) The three terms on the right-hand side of Eq. 51) represent the diffusion, production, and dissipation of k, respectively. To close this equation, the diffusion term is treated in analogy to Eq. 08/cµ . For the turbulence in a state of local equilibrium, its production is equal to dissipa2 − c k3/2 /L = 0 in the case tion, and then Eq. 52) can be simpliﬁed as νt (∂ u/∂z) ¯ m D of shear flows.
Computational river dynamics by Weiming Wu